Sarah E. Domoff, PhD

Clinical Child Psychologist, Expert on Children's Media Use and Problematic Media Use in Adolescents. Director of the Family Health Lab, Central Michigan University

Category: Publication

The role of compulsive texting in adolescents’ academic functioning.

The role of compulsive texting in adolescents’ academic functioning.

Lister-Landman, K., Domoff, S. E., & Dubow, E. F. (2015). The role of compulsive texting in adolescents’ academic functioning. Psychology of Popular Media Culture. DOI: 10.1037/ppm0000100

Abstract: Text messaging has increased dramatically among adolescents over the past 10 years. Many researchers have cited potential consequences associated with a high frequency of texting and problematic texting behaviors. This study examines the relations among frequency of texting, a specific type of problematic texting (i.e., compulsive texting), and adolescents’ academic achievement and attitudes about school. Adolescents in 8th (n = 211) and 11th (n = 192) grades participated in this study. Results indicated that, as hypothesized, teens’ compulsive texting was significantly positively related to their frequency of texting and negatively related to their grades, school bonding, and perceived scholastic competence. It is noteworthy that the negative relation between compulsive texting and academic functioning held true only for females and not for males. Actively preventing or reducing compulsive texting may ameliorate the potential effects of texting on academic adjustment in adolescents.

Validation of the Children’s Eating Behaviour Questionnaire in a low-income preschool-aged sample in the United States.

Validation of the Children’s Eating Behaviour Questionnaire in a low-income preschool-aged sample in the United States.

Domoff, S. E., Miller, A. L., Kaciroti, N., & Lumeng, J. C. (2015). Validation of the Children’s Eating Behaviour Questionnaire in a low-income preschool-aged sample in the United States. Appetite, 95, 415-420. DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2015.08.002

Abstract: The Children’s Eating Behaviour Questionnaire (CEBQ; Wardle, Guthrie, Sanderson, & Rapoport, 2001) is a widely used measure of child eating behaviors. Yet, only one study has examined the factor structure of the CEBQ among low-income children. In the current study, we examined the internal consistency, factor structure, and validity of the CEBQ among 1002 low-income preschool-age children recruited from Head Start locations in the United States. Confirmatory Factor Analysis indicated the CEBQ evidenced a reasonable fit to the data. Results also indicate that CEBQ subscales demonstrate good internal reliability (α’s ≥ .70) and validity, with 7 of the 8 subscales associated with children’s BMI z-scores in the expected directions. Equivalent factor loadings and indicator means across White and Black non-Hispanic participants were found, supporting measurement invariance between these two groups. In sum, our study supports the factor structure of the CEBQ among low-income preschool-aged children in the United States.

Maternal feeding goals and restaurant menu choices for young children.

Maternal feeding goals and restaurant menu choices for young children.

Domoff, S. E., Kiefner, A. M., Hoffman, D. A., & Musher-Eizenman, D.R. (2015). Maternal feeding goals and restaurant menu choices for young children. Childhood Obesity, 11 (4), 484-488. DOI: 10.1089/chi.2015.0014

Abstract:

Background: Childhood obesity remains a major public health issue. One recent effort to improve the obesogenic environment is mandating that restaurants provide calorie and other nutritional content on menus. Little is known about whether maternal feeding for young children is influenced by calorie disclosure on menus. This study examined (1) whether maternal feeding goals associate with mothers’ food selections for their young children and (2) whether mothers change entrée and side selections for their children when calories/fat grams are listed on menus.

Methods: One-hundred seventy mothers of children ages of 3–6 years participated in an online survey. Most participants identified as white (76.5%), with a mean BMI of 25.68 (standard deviation=5.94). Mothers were presented two menus (one with and one without calorie/fat information).

Results: The goal of feeding for the child’s familiarity with the food was significantly associated with mothers’ selection of original side dish and entrées, with greater endorsement of this goal associated with choosing high-calorie/-fat sides and entrées. Feeding for natural content was associated with mothers’ selection of original entrée, with greater endorsement of this goal associated with choosing low-calorie/-fat entrées. Significantly fewer mothers chose a higher-calorie entrée when there was menu labeling.

Conclusions: Maternal feeding goals are associated with mothers’ selection of entrée and side dishes on restaurant menus. Results from this study suggest that menu labeling of calories and fat grams may influence entrée choices by mothers. Targeting mothers’ feeding goals and labeling restaurant menus may improve the diets of young children.

The influence of co-offending within a moderated mediation model of parent and peer predictors of delinquency.

The influence of co-offending within a moderated mediation model of parent and peer predictors of delinquency.

Dynes, M. E., Domoff, S. E., Amrhein, K. A., Hassan, S., & Tompsett, C. J. (2015). The influence of co-offending within a moderated mediation model of parent and peer predictors of delinquency. Journal of Child and Family Studies. 24 (12), 3516-3525.  DOI: 10.1007/s10826-015-0153-3

Abstract: Parental monitoring impacts adolescent delinquency both directly by limiting unsupervised activities and indirectly by limiting access to delinquent peers. Deviant peers may influence adolescent delinquency through a number of mechanisms, and there is a lack of clarity within the literature on distinctions between co-offending and deviant peer norms as influential mechanisms. Less is known about the impact of co-offending on the mediated relationship among parental monitoring, peer delinquency, and adolescent delinquency. The current study examined the relationship between parental monitoring, deviant peer behaviors, co-offending, and self-reported delinquency among 186 court-involved youth (12–18 years old) in a small city in the Midwest. The effects of parental monitoring on delinquency were partially mediated by delinquent peer affiliation. A moderated mediation model found that co-offending moderated the association between delinquent peer affiliation and delinquency, such that the relationship between peer delinquency and self-reported delinquency is stronger for those who co-offend.

The validity of the Dutch Eating Behavior Questionnaire: Some critical remarks.

The validity of the Dutch Eating Behavior Questionnaire: Some critical remarks.

Domoff, S. E., Meers, M. R., Koball, A. M., & Musher-Eizenman, D. R. (2014). The validity of the Dutch Eating Behavior Questionnaire: Some critical remarks. Eating and Weight Disorders: Studies on Anorexia, Bulimia and Obesity. 19(2), 137-144. DOI: 10.1007/s40519-013-0087-y

Abstract: Recent debate has considered the validity of self-reports and laboratory-based behavioral measures of emotional eating. This paper reviews the literature on self-reported emotional eating and actual eating behavior (i.e., examines the concurrent validity). As detailed in the review, the literature suggests mixed findings on the correspondence between these self-reports and actual eating behavior. Based on this, we cite characteristics of studies that support the concurrent validity of the DEBQ and address possible reasons for the lack of concurrent validity in other studies, as well as concerns about the measurement of emotional eating in the laboratory. Two reasons for the lack of concurrent validity of self-report emotional eating scales identified in this review include (1) methodological/experimental design flaws and (2) the variability of emotional eating based on participant characteristics. We argue that further research on emotional eating needs to address factors related to self-reports of emotional eating and objective emotional eating behavior (e.g., negative affect, inaccurate recall of eating behaviors, sample differences, and laboratory design). We conclude with recommendations for future research on emotional eating.

Examining perceived stereotype threat among overweight/obese adults using a multi-threat framework.

Examining perceived stereotype threat among overweight/obese adults using a multi-threat framework.

Carels, R. A., Domoff, S. E., Burmeister, J. M., Koball, A. M., Hinman, N., Davis, A. K., Wagner Oehlhof, M., Leroy, M., Bannon, E., & Hoffmann, D. A. (2013). Examining perceived stereotype threat among overweight/obese adults using a multi-threat framework. Obesity Facts, 6, 258-68. DOI :10.1159/000352029

Abstract:
Objective: The Multi-Threat Framework accounts for potentially different forms of stereotype threat that differ in target (i.e., the individual or the group) and source (i.e., the self or others). This investigation examined how these different forms of perceived stereotype threat were related to concepts, such as group identity, stereotype endorsement, stigma consciousness, etc., among overweight and obese individuals. Method: 216 adults completed an online survey. Participants’ mean age was 23.6 (SD 10.1; range 18-64) years and mean BMI was 31.6 (SD 7.5) kg/m2. Results: Participants reported a history of feeling threatened by stereotypes related to weight. When reflecting on past experiences of perceived stereotype threat, participants reported greater levels of self/own stereotype threat compared to group stereotype threat. Level of stereotype threat was related to a number of personal characteristics (i.e., sex, BMI) and individual factors (i.e., group identity, stigma consciousness, fear of fat). Conclusion: Individuals who are overweight report a history of being threatened by negative stereotypes. The findings support the Multi-Threat Framework for stereotype threat based on body weight. Overweight individuals’ susceptibility to stereotype threat may vary systematically depending on several factors. Future research should examine weight-related stereotypes’ impact on cognitive and behavioral outcomes.

Peer substance use and homelessness predicting substance abuse from adolescence through early adulthood.

Peer substance use and homelessness predicting substance abuse from adolescence through early adulthood.

Tompsett, C. J., Domoff, S. E., & Toro, P. (2013). Peer substance use and homelessness predicting substance abuse from adolescence through early adulthood. American Journal of Community Psychology, 51: 520-529. DOI: 10.1007/s10464-013-9569-3

Abstract: Adolescents who experience homelessness are at higher risk for abusing substances, and for being exposed to substance-using peers. The current study used a longitudinal design to track substance abuse, affiliation with substance-using peers, and episodes of homelessness among a sample of 223 adolescents who were housed at the baseline data collection and 148 adolescents who were housed at baseline. Participants were interviewed at six waves over 6.5 years, covering an age range from 13 to 25. Many participants experienced a recurrence of homelessness during follow-up, with 64.6 % of the baseline homeless group and 22.6 % of the baseline housed group reporting an additional episode of homelessness. Both alcohol abuse and other drug abuse symptoms showed an increase in adolescence followed by slowing in early adulthood. Recent homelessness and friend alcohol use predicted alcohol abuse symptoms, and the strength of the influence of friend use decreased over time. Recent homelessness and friend drug use predicted other drug abuse symptoms. Duration of the initial episode of adolescent homelessness showed no influence on substance abuse over time, or the effects of other predictors, highlighting the importance of conceptualizing the experience of homelessness as a recent stressor rather than an enduring personal characteristic.

Eating when bored: A revision of the emotional eating scale with a focus on boredom.

Eating when bored: A revision of the emotional eating scale with a focus on boredom.

Koball, A. M., Meers, M. R., Storfer-Isser, A., Domoff, S. E., & Musher-Eizenman, D. R. (2012). Eating when bored: A revision of the emotional eating scale with a focus on boredom. Health Psychology, 31, 521-524. DOI: 10.1037/a0025893

Abstract: The current study explored whether eating when bored is a distinct construct from other negative emotions by revising the Emotional Eating Scale (EES) to include a separate boredom factor. Additionally, the relative endorsement of eating when bored compared to eating in response to other negative emotions was examined. Method: A convenience sample of 139 undergraduates completed open-ended questions regarding their behaviors when experiencing different levels of emotions. Participants were then given the 25-item EES with 6 additional items designed to measure boredom. Results: On the open-ended items, participants more often reported eating in response to boredom than the other emotions. Exploratory factor analysis showed that boredom is a separate construct from other negative emotions. Additionally, the most frequently endorsed item on the EES was “eating when bored.” Conclusions: These results suggest that boredom is an important construct, and that it should be considered a separate dimension of emotional eating.

The effects of reality television on weight bias: An examination of the Biggest Loser.

The effects of reality television on weight bias: An examination of the Biggest Loser.

Domoff, S. E., Hinman, N. G., Koball, A. M., Storfer-Isser, A., Carhart, V. L., Baik, K. D., & Carels, R. A (2012). The effects of reality television on weight bias: An examination of the Biggest Loser. Obesity, 20: 993-998. DOI: 10.1038/oby.2011.378

Abstract: Weight-loss reality shows, a popular form of television programming, portray obese individuals and their struggles to lose weight. While the media is believed to reinforce obesity stereotypes and contribute to weight stigma, it is not yet known whether weight-loss reality shows have any effect on weight bias. The goal of this investigation was to examine how exposure to 40-min of The Biggest Loser impacted participants’ levels of weight bias. Fifty-nine participants (majority of whom were white females) were randomly assigned to either an experimental (one episode of The Biggest Loser) or control (one episode of a nature reality show) condition. Levels of weight bias were measured by the Implicit Associations Test (IAT), the Obese Person Trait Survey (OPTS), and the Anti-fat Attitudes scale (AFA) at baseline and following the episode viewing (1 week later). Participants in The Biggest Loser condition had significantly higher levels of dislike of overweight individuals and more strongly believed that weight is controllable after the exposure. No significant condition effects were found for implicit bias or traits associated with obese persons. Exploratory analyses examining moderation of the condition effect by BMI and intention to lose weight indicated that participants who had lower BMIs and were not trying to lose weight had significantly higher levels of dislike of overweight individuals following exposure to The Biggest Loser compared to similar participants in the control condition. These results indicate that anti-fat attitudes increase after brief exposure to weight-loss reality television.

Prediction of restraints among youth in a psychiatric hospital: Application of translational action research.

Prediction of restraints among youth in a psychiatric hospital: Application of translational action research.

Tompsett, C. J., Domoff, S., and Boxer, P. (2011). Prediction of restraints among youth in a psychiatric hospital: Application of translational action research. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 67, 368–382. DOI: 10.1002/jclp.20772

Abstract: This study extends a translational action research program by applying a theoretically based measure of risk in predicting incidents of restraint among children and adolescents in a secure psychiatric hospital. Youth inpatients (N = 149, aged 5–17 years) were assessed at intake for the presence of selected individual and contextual risk factors, and their involvement in critical incidents was tracked (i.e., number of episodes in which restraint was applied) for the remainder of their hospitalization. Models including history of aggression or history of previous placements as well as combined models including several individual and contextual factors significantly predicted the likelihood of a youth becoming involved in at least one restraint. Unique predictors of restraint involvement included history of aggression against adults and history of previous psychiatric hospitalizations. None of the variables assessed predicted the extent of a youth’s restraint involvement. The implications of these findings are discussed with respect to future research and empirically informed practice with high-risk youth.

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